Review Article

Variability: External Data, Internal Apprehension, or a Balance between Them? A Mathematical Argument and Some Upshots

This paper addresses how one apprehends variability. Statistics does provide estimators like variance and standard error. After a recall of usual form... Read more


Case Study

Pseudoprogression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Attributable to the Anti-PD-1 Antibody Nivolumab

Pseudoprogression is a challenging obstacle in the interpretation of therapeutic response to radiation and chemotherapies for metastatic brain lesions... Read more



Colitis from an Artist's Prospective

It is widely understood that art expresses human experience to an audience. The viewer is provided with a unique form of insight when art is created b... Read more


Original Article

Hepatitis C Virus Infection and the Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases in Azadi Teaching Hospital, Duhok, Kurdistan

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection might act as a triggering factor for inflammation in the lungs, hence, either initiating or exacerbating the develop... Read more


Case Report

Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Treated with the Oral Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Imatinib: A Case Report

Tumor lysis syndrome in hematological malignancy is more common than in solid tumors. Little literature has been published on tumor lysis syndrome in ... Read more


Clinical Image

Duodenal-Type Follicular Lymphoma Mimic Follicular Hyperplasia

A 56-year-old Japanese woman with no notable medical history was admitted to our clinic because of abnormal changes in upper gastrointestinal series f... Read more


Clinical Image

Bedside Lung Ultrasonography in the Assessment of the Postoperative Atelectasis

Postoperative atelectasis may complicate the progress of patients after major abdominal surgery. Lung ultrasonography plays a key role in the diagnosi... Read more


Case Report

The Unusual Presentation of Acute Appendicitis in Pregnancy

Acute appendicitis is the most common non-obstetric surgical emergency during pregnancy, and can be difficult to identify due to its unusual and incon... Read more


Case Report

Acute Flank Pain in the Emergency Room: Rare Case and Review of the Literature

Wunderlich syndrome is defined as spontaneous renal hemorrhage. Generally, the kidney mass may be due to secondary causes such as vascular pathologies... Read more


Case Report

Haemorrhage Control Following Massive Pelvic Bleeding

Massive pelvic bleeding has a high mortality rate. Several measures like pelvic vessel ligations, mechanical stabilization of disrupted pelvic ring, p... Read more