Annals of Public Health Reports

 ISSN: 2642-4924

Annals of Public Health Reports

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Table of Content: Volume 4, Issue 1

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Research Article Pages 136-141

Sensitivity of Nasal and Oropharyngeal Swabs in Diagnosing COVID-19 in Hospitalised Patients

Authors: Khurram Shahzad Khan, Morag McLellan, Giuliana Torpiano, ShouKee Ng and Sajid Mahmud

Abstract: To evaluate the sensitivity of nasal and oropharyngeal swabs in diagnosing COVID-19 in hospitalised patients and comparing patient factors and admission investigations to the swab result.

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Review Article Pages 129-135

Does Nature Have a Systematic Sex Bias: Prevalence, Mortality, and Trend of COVID-19

Authors: Niharika Srivastava, Arinjita Bhattacharyya, Anand Seth, Shesh N Rai

Abstract: The unprecedented outbreak of a contagious respiratory disease similar to pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus termed as COVID-19 has led to a pandemic claiming millions of lives worldwide. Potential vaccine candidates are underdevelopment to contain and mitigate the spread of Global cases and deaths. Preliminary reports suggest that males and females are affected in cases and deaths differentially.

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Review Article Pages 122-128

Mass Media and Public Interest in COVID-19: An Investigation of Anosmia Related Search Queries in the United States

Authors: Humzah A Quereshy, Tarun K Jella, MPH, Jeremy S Ruthberg, Armine Kocharyan, MD, Claudia Cabrera Aviles, MD, Todd D Otteson, MD, MPH and Brian D'Anza

Abstract: Coronavirus-Disease-2019 (COVID-19) can be heralded by anosmia as a major symptom in up to 60% of patients. In this study, we sought to describe the temporal and geospatial distribution of anosmia in internet search queries relative to COVID-19 case densities across the United States, and to characterize the quality of online resources people used for anosmia searches during the early stages of the pandemic.

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Review Article Pages 115-121

Can Age Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index Predict Prognosis in Hospitalised COVID-19 patients?

Authors: Khurram Shahzad Khan, Hisham El-Zanati, and Sajid Mahmud

Abstract: Age adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) has previously shown to predict outcome in wide range of diseases. We aim to assess if ACCI can predict 30-day all-cause mortality and need for critical care in COVID-19 patients.

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Current Opinion Pages 108-114

The New 2020 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: A Perspective of the Interamerican Adult Congenital Heart Disease Council of the Interamerican Society of Cardiology (ACHDC-IASC)

Authors: John Jairo Araujo MD

Abstract: Recently, the new European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of adult congenital heart disease were published. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, on this occasion, they were presented virtually during the last European Cardiology Congress. The greater survival of adults with congenital heart disease is a result of the latest advances in new interventionist treatments for repairing congenital heart defects, the implementation of new medical management

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Review Article Pages 105-107

Analysis of Online Media Consumption during Initial Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Tarun K Jella, MPH, Nicole Ducich BS, Taral K Jella, Mamta Singh, MD, MS, Johnie Rose, MD, PhD, Heidi Gullett, MD, MPH and Kurt Stange, MD, PhD

Abstract: As the COVID-19 cases continue to rise, individuals are seeking out online information regarding the pandemic at unprecedented rates. In volumes never seen before, and from various sources currently unknown to providers. This study may act as a guide for healthcare, public health, and government personnel to characterize the most popular destinations of COVID-19 related web searches, in order to dispel possible rumors and promote the consumption of credible information.

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Review Article Pages Review Art

Effects of the Covid-19 Pandemic on “The Big Three”: Hiv, Tuberculosis, and Malaria

Authors: Meghan May, Ph.D

Abstract: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) emerged in Wuhan, China, and was quickly isolated following cases of viral acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Understanding of the clinical constellation associated with SARS-CoV-2 expanded to include cardiovascular, neurological, and systemic inflammatory manifestations, and disease following infection with SARS-CoV-2 became collectively called Corona Virus Disease - 2019 (COVID-19)

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Review Article Pages 92-99

Antibiofilm Activity of Natural Products: Promising Strategies for Combating Microbial Biofilms

Authors: Nagela Bernadelli Sousa Silva, Lara de Andrade Marques2 and Denise von Dolinger de Brito Röder

Abstract: Microbial biofilm is defined as an association of bacterial and fungal cells, fixed to surfaces, biotic or abiotic, included in a complex extracellular matrix of polymeric substances (EPS). It is estimated that approximately 65% of microbial infections are caused by biofilm-forming microorganisms, representing a serious public health problem. In addition, the integrity of machinery and equipment in industries can be compromised by the presence of biofilms, causing significant economic losses.

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Case Report Pages 87-91

Sepsis Produces Microthrombosis and Not Coagulation: Implications for Sepsis Therapy

Authors: H Bradford Hawley, MD

Abstract: The hemostatic abnormalities which may accompany sepsis have been attributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) initiated by tissue factor (TF) activating FVII leading to TF-FVII a complex formation and triggering the extrinsic coagulation cascade. Recently, a new theory of hemostasis has been proposed in which sepsis is associated with endothelial damage releasing unusually large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF).

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Case Report Pages 84-86

Posterior Reversible Leukpoencephaopthy Syndrome Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies

Authors: Adnan I Qureshi, MD, Navpreet K Bains, DO, MBA, Ross Smith, MD, Farhan Siddiq, MD, Brandi R French, MD, Camilo R Gomez, MD and Joseph P Cousins, Ph.D, MD

Abstract: A 60-year-old caucasian woman was transferred from an outside hospital with one week history of severe headache, intermittent nausea, vomiting, and a one day history of episodes of dizziness, ataxia, and falls. An initial non-contrast computed tomographic of head demonstrated diffuse cerebral edema prompting transfer to our institution for further evaluation and management. The patient did not recall any contact with known SARS-CoV-2 infected patient or any history of fever, respiratory symptoms or diarrhea. On initial evaluation, her blood pressure was 150/89 mmHg. The patient was alert and oriented, and exhibited slight dysmetria of the right upper extremity. Several abnormalities were noted on testing: Elevated leukocytes, fibrinogen, D-Dimer, creatinine phosphokinase, creatinine phosphokinase MB

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Review Article Pages 78-83

Coronavirus Syndrome: COVID-19 World Psychotrauma

Authors: Nadezhda V Solov'eva, Ekaterina V Makarova and Irina V Kichuk

Abstract: Coronavirus syndrome is a mental disorder that is a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which will affect up to 10% of the population. We can already observe acute stress reactions to the spread of the infection and changes in people’s customary lifestyle. However, the most severe symptoms will be seen 6 months after the beginning of the catastrophe and will be similar to the clinical picture of post-traumatic stress disorder.

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Review Article Pages 76-77

Younger Age Groups and the Next COVID-19 Wave

Authors: Alamin Alkundi and Rabiu Momoh

Abstract: As lockdown measures to control the COVID-19 virus are being eased in a lot of countries, (including the United Kingdom), the potential of a second wave of this infection spread remains a possibility as most countries have not been able to achieve herd immunity from this virus. We have explored the potential risk of younger age groups being more affected in a second wave of this virus and made recommendations.

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Short Review Pages 73-75

The Correlation between RAS and COVID-19, Short Review of the Latest Evidence

Authors: Antonio Vitiello, Priscilla Santilli and Francesco Ferrara

Abstract: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cause of the recent global pandemic, which is causing thousands of deaths worldwide and represents a health challenge with few precedents in human history. The angiotensin 2 conversion enzyme (ACE-2) has been identified as the receptor that facilitates access to SARS-CoV-2 in cells; evidence shows that its concentration varies during the various stages of viral infection.

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Letter to Editor Pages 70-72

Subnormal Clusters in the Context of the Current COVID-19 Outbreak: Challenges for Brazilian Public Health

Authors: Samuel Cota Teixeira

Abstract: The recent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly become a worldwide public health concern. On February 3, 2020, the Brazilian government declared the COVID-19 pandemic as a public health emergency; thus, the following question is raised: What is the current situation in the Brazilian subnormal clusters popularly known as favelas seven months later?

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Review Article Pages 65-69

COVID-19: Delayed Public Health Response Versus Great Need

Authors: Prof. Jens Holst

Abstract: No doubt, the COVID-19 crisis is offering particular opportunities and challenges for Public Health. In the beginning, the management of the pandemic was determined by virologists, supported by epidemiologists who did not always meet indispensable scientific requirements. Interdisciplinary and complex Public Health expertise failed to have tangible impact on the COVID-19 debate.

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Case Report Pages 62-64

The Greatest Risk to Malaysian Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Crisis: Lies of Patients

Authors: Shereen Allaham, PharmD, MPH, Omar Zakieh, Medical Student, Faizul Nizam Abu Salim, MBChB, MSc IHSHM, HMS-SEAL, Abigail AL Choong, MBChB, MRCPCH and Logan Manikam, MBcHB, FFPH, PhD

Abstract: In Malaysia, the first case of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported on 25 January 2020. Reported cases remained relatively low until a surge of cases emerged in March 2020, most of them linked to a Tabligh religious gathering held in the Seri Petaling Mosque in Kuala Lumpur. Despite the fact that mass gatherings are known to both pose & cause major public health challenges during outbreaks, the gathering was held & attended by 16,000 people including 1,500 foreigners from over 20 countries as prior approval was granted by non-health related agency. As of 1 July 2020, 8640 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Malaysia have been reported; 3375 of these linked to the ‘Tabligh’ gathering

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Case Report Pages 55-61

Characteristics of Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19: A Cohort Study in Medical Intensive Care Unit (Mulhouse, France)

Authors: POINTURIER Valentin, MD, VIROT Edouard, MD, DEGOUL Samuel, MD, MATHIEN Cyrille, MD, POIDEVIN Antoine, MD, PINTO Luis, MD, LABRO Guylaine, MD, RABOUEL Yannick, MD, BODUR Gokhan, MD, JANDEAUX Louise Marie, MD, LESTHIEVENT Thomas, MOOTIEN Joy, MD and KUTEIFAN Khaldoun, MD

Abstract: The outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 began in the east of France during the first days of March after a religious meeting gathering about 2000 people, which took place in Mulhouse from February 17th to 24th 2020. We describe the characteristics of patients admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU)

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Case Report Pages 53-54

Reverse Innovation: Could Learning From LMIC Child Health Programmes Support HIC to Equitably and Efficiently Address Child Health Needs Post COVID-19?

Authors: Monica Lakhanpaul, Diana Margot Rosenthal, Maya Lakhanpaul, Jennifer Martin, Michelle Heys and Priti Parikh

Abstract: It has been recognised that the first 1000 days (now extended to age 5) of a child's life are fundamental for growth and brain development. Furthermore, it is considered a critical time across the life course when early intervention can mitigate long-term consequences of malnutrition, infections, and other recognised public health problems leading to conditions such as developmental delay, obesity, diabetes and asthma later in life

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Case Report Pages 48-52

Lest we Forget: Rheumatic Fever is Still Damaging Hearts

Authors: GC Ukala, FRCP Edin and Sonia P Reid-Ukala, BSc, MBBS

Abstract: Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is still a burden in many developing countries and indigenous communities within developed countries. A simple sore throat caused by the Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus bacterium in children, teenagers and young adults, unrecognized and/or under-treated, is all it takes to begin a whole cascade of damage to the heart valves and other cardiac structures resulting in valvular stenosis and incompetence.

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