Journal of Pediatric Neurology and Neuroscience

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 ISSN: 2642-4797

Journal of Pediatric Neurology and Neuroscience

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Table of Content: Volume 5, Issue 2

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Case Report Pages 194-196

Transverse Myelitis Secondary to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Pediatric Patient

Authors: Luis Del Carpio-Orantes, Bernardo Ramírez-Orantes, Carlos Humberto Aguilar-Arguello, Gonzalo Antonio Neme Díaz and Pablo Valladares-Sánchez

Abstract: The clinical case of an 11-year-old male patients presented, treated at the Internal Medicine Service of the Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad del Niño Dr. Rodolfo Nieto Padrón, Tabasco for presenting weakness of the upper and lower extremities of 4 days of evolution at the time of admission, with the history that 17 days prior to the onset of weakness, he had fever and dysgeusia treated only with antipyretic. Complementary studies were carried out such as a

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Research Article Pages 190-193

Febrile Coronavirus and Autism

Authors: Gary Steinman and David Mankuta

Abstract: A number of reports have pointed to the apparent relationship between reduced IGF1 in pregnancies and the development of autism in the offspring. Fever due to inflammatory processes in the gravida emerges as a potential key factor in this phenomenon.

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Case Report Pages 184-189

CD59 Deficiency in Two Bahraini Children: Clinical Profile and Outcome

Authors: Ayman Khalil Ali and Fatema Naser Alfayez

Abstract: CD59 is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by various clinical manifestations including hemolytic anemia, neurological deficit due to recurrent stroke and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy like picture. CD59 is a glycoprotein encoded by CD59 gene, and expressed in various body tissues. It provides protection against complement membrane attack complex. The aim of this presentation is to describe the clinical profile of a relative rare and unique condition, which has potential therapeutic approach and the diagnosis can help for genetic counseling.

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Case Report Pages 175-178

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient with SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Authors: Anita Mathew, DO, Richard Sultan, DO and Zelda J Ghersin, MD

Abstract: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical syndrome associated with certain underlying conditions or medications, with a spectrum of neurologic findings and characteristic neuroimaging. We describe a case of PRES in a 3-year-old girl positive for SARS-CoV-2 with no other underlying risk factors for the development of this syndrome. We review and suggest plausible mechanisms of neurologic involvement in patients positive for SARS-CoV-2.

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Case Report Pages 172-174

Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury without Neuroimaging Abnormality (SCIWNA): A Clinico-Radiological Conundrum

Authors: Kamer Singh Rana, MD (Paed), Jyotindra Narayan Goswami, MD (Paed), DNB (Paed), DM (Paed Neurology), MNAMS and Dinesh Sareen, MD (Internal Medicine), DM (Neurology)

Abstract: ‘Spinal Cord Injury Without Neuroimaging Abnormality’ (SCIWNA) is a clinico-radiological entity characterized by clinical markers of traumatic myelopathy without neuroimaging evidence of spinal instability or fracture, which is being increasingly recognized among children with the growing application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A child with SCIWNA is being reported to sensitize clinicians about this entity and to highlight the key aspects that aid in its early diagnosis and effective management.

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Case Report Pages 169- 171

Intracranial and Ocular Abnormalities in a Child with Neurodevelopmental Delay

Authors: Meghna Rajaprakash, MSc, MD, Jessica Heymans, BA and Erick Sell, MD

Abstract: A patient with neurodevelopmental delay and an unremarkable prenatal and birth history presented postnatally with congenital cataracts and neuroanatomical abnormalities including periventricular calcifications, porencephaly, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Although there was initial suspicion for a TORCH infection including cytomegalovirus, further genetic testing revealed a novel COL4A1 mutation, which involves type 4 collagen alpha 1 chain, an important component of vasculature.

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Research Article Pages 164-168

Childhood Epileptic Encephalopathy in Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria

Authors: MM Ahmad and H Ahmed

Abstract: Pediatric epileptic encephalopathies comprises a group of severe childhood epilepsy syndromes characterized by refractory seizures associated with progressive cerebral dysfunction, manifesting as cognitive or learning difficulties and behavioural or sensory impairments.

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Research Article Pages 155-163

Prevalence and Patterns of Psychosocial Problems among Adolescents with Epilepsy in Enugu, Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Chukwubike Onyebuchi Nnajekwu, MBBS, FMC Paed, Uchenna Chiagoziem Nnajekwu, MBBS, FMC Paed, Anthony Nnaemeka Ikefuna, MBBS, FMC Paed, FRCP and Ngozi Chinyelu Ojinnaka, MBBS, FWACP, MPH

Abstract: The prevalence of psychosocial problems was significantly higher in the adolescents with epilepsy compared to the apparently healthy controls. Externalising problems were the most common pattern observed. No significant difference was found in the pattern of psychosocial problems between adolescents with epilepsy and apparently healthy controls. There was a significant relationship between psychosocial problems and either age

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Short Report Pages 150-154

Antenatal Counselling in Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability: Case Series

Authors: Reema Bhatt, MD(Pediatrics), DNB (Pediatrics), DM(Pediatric Neurology), MNAMS, Ratna Dua Puri, MD(Pediatrics), DM(Medical Genetics), and Jyotindra Narayan Goswami, MD(Pediatrics), DNB(Pediatrics), DM (Pediatric Neurology), MNAMS

Abstract: Intellectual disability and developmental delay are common presentations encountered in pediatric clinical practice. The etiologies of these illnesses are diverse. Subtle clinical markers may act as pointers to underlying genetic etiologies in some of these conditions. Due to the increased availability of genetic tests, there is a robust role of genetic counselling in many of these conditions. However, investigations need to be judiciously advised in order to balance the anticipated gains with the expenses, more so in resource-limited settings. With this background, authors wish to report a series of cases where children had presented with various spectra of developmental delay, wherein, after clinical examination and appropriate testing, genetic diagnoses were unearthed and antenatal genetic counseling was offered.

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Case Report Pages 145-149

Guillain-Barré Syndrome Triggered by COVID-19: A Pediatric Case Report and Literature Review

Authors: Anthony Declusin, MD, Laura Bricklin, MD, Melisa Tanverdi, MD, Andrew White, MD, Michelle Brajcich, MD, John Szigety, MD, Lauren DiSalvo, DO, Nicholas Breitnauer, MD, Nicholas Stence, MD, William Mundo, MPH, and Padmini Palat, MD, MPH

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with a variety of neurologic manifestations, including Guillain- Barré syndrome (GBS), but few pediatric cases have been reported. We would like to present a pediatric case of GBS in association with a recent COVID-19 infection that presented with an isolated clinical facial nerve palsy.

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Case Report Pages 142-144

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Caused by Autonomic Dysreflexia in an Adolescent after Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Javid Sardarzada, Sibel Öz, Dilara Mat, İbrahim Öncel, Ali Düzova and Banu Anlar

Abstract: The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological entity caused by impairment of cerebral autoregulation leading to vasogenic edema. Common etiologies include immunosuppressive drugs, autoimmune disorders and hypertension.

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Case Report Pages 141-141

Reversible MRI Changes in the Splenium Related to Recent Cessation of Antiepileptic Medications

Authors: McLaren J, Misra A and Chu CJ

Abstract: A 21-year-old male with history of refractory epilepsy presented for long-term video EEG monitoring. His home antiepileptic medications were weaned off over a seven-day period. On hospital day 4, he had a right temporal electro clinical seizure with secondary generalization and a second right temporal electrographic seizure. On hospital day 8, MRI brain identified an ovoid circumscribed lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum which had not been present on prior scans (Figure 1). This characteristic lesion is thought to be induced by a rapid reduction of antiepileptic drugs, not with toxic drug effects or seizure frequency. It requires no further investigation

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Case Report Pages 140-140

Reversible Signal Abnormalities in Bilateral Dentate Nuclei Secondary to Isoniazid Neurotoxicity

Authors: CaragherS, McLaren J and Balaban D

Abstract: An 11-year-old Colombian female on isoniazid for recently diagnosed latent tuberculosis presented to the emergency department after a first-time, generalized tonicclonic seizure. She exhibited mild bilateral hypometria on finger-to-nose testing, lower limb ataxia on heel-to-shin testing, and dysmetria on rhythmic finger tapping. MRI brain revealed symmetric T2/FLAIR hyper intensities with diffusion restriction and apparent diffusion coefficient correlate in bilateral dentate nuclei (Figure 1A, Figure 1B, Figure 1C). It was discovered that the patient had mistakenly taken twice the prescribed dose of isoniazid for two weeks prior to presentation. Eighteen days after cessation of isoniazid, her exam returned to baseline, and MRI demonstrated resolution of the abovementioned signal changes (Figure 1D, Figure 1E, Figure 1F).

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Letter to Editor Pages 138-139

Tourette Syndrome Mimic: An Atypical Presentation of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

Authors: Sandeep Paimode, MD and Jyotindra Narayan Goswami, MD, DNB, DM, MNAMS

Abstract: A 10.5-year-old girl presented with abnormal movements and behavioural problems for three months. Initially she used to have lip-twitching and eye-blinking when awake. After six weeks, she started having shoulder-shrugs, neck-turning, throat-clearing at a frequency of 10-20/hour, exacerbated by stress. In addition, she exhibited temper-tantrums, unprovoked crying and scholastic deterioration. She did not have unconsciousness, drop-attacks, limb weakness/tightness, bowel/bladder symptoms, fever, rash, jaundice, head-injury, toxin exposure or contributory family history. Her immunization was complete as per the National Immunization Schedule.

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Case Report Pages 134-137

Encephalopathy and Cytotoxic Lesion of the Corpus Callosum Associated with Cytokine Storm in COVID-19: A Case Report

Authors: Duyu A Nie, MD, PhD

Abstract: The neurological complications and neuroradiological spectrum of the SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19 disease) in pediatric patients are increasingly recognized, however, the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS) involvement remains largely elusive. One hypothesis is that the activation of innate immunity and release of cytokines breaks down the blood brain barrier (BBB) and causes neuroinflammation. Here, I present a case of COVID-19 associated MIS-C (multisystem inflammatory syndrome

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