Table 1: Summary table of studies examining WBC for post-exercise recovery, with varying protocol factors.

Study

Sample characteristics

Exercise protocol/s

Treatment duration

Treatment temperature

Treatment timing post exercise

Treatment frequency

Major effects/ findings

Hausswirth, et al. [31]

 

9 runners, average age 31.8

48-minute simulated trail run on treadmill (alternating gradients)

3 mins

-110 C

< 5 mins

3 treatments on consecutive days

+ve effect on muscle torque, pain and wellbeing

Fonda & Sarabon [30]

 

11 males, active, average age 26.9

Plyometric exercises (drop jumps and leg curls)

3 mins

-140 C -185 C

1 hour

7 treatments on consecutive days

+ve effect on muscle torque, jump power and pain

Ferreira-Junior, et al. [32]

 

12 males, active, average age 23.9

Concentric and eccentric knee extensions - 6 sets of 10 repetitions for each

3 mins (PBC*)

-110 C

< 5 mins

Single

+ve effect on muscle torque

Ferreira-Junior, et al. [39]

26 males, active, average age 20.2

Drop jumps - 5 sets of 20 repetitions

3 mins (PBC*)

-110 C

10 mins

Single

+ve effect on muscle torque, muscle thickness

Costello, et al. [18]

 

18 Ps - male and female

Eccentric knee extensions - 20 sets of 5 reps

3 mins

-110 C

24 hrs

Single

No +ve effect

Vieira, et al. [40]

 

12 males, average age 23.9, resistance trained

Concentric and eccentric knee extensions - 6 sets of 10 repetitions

3 mins

-110 C

< 5 mins

Single

No +ve effect

Ziemann, et al. [34]

 

12 male tennis players

5 days moderate intensity training - strength, endurance, agility

3 mins

-120 C

N/A (9:30 and 17:30 each day)

2 treatments a day for 5 consecutive days

+ve effects on inflammation, CK, VO2, heart rate

Wozniak, et al. [11]

 

21 kayakers, male and female, average age 24

10 days of training - endurance, strength and water

3 mins

-120 C -140 C

??

3 treatments a day for 10 consecutive days (trained). Single (untrained)

+ve effect on CK activity (i.e. reduced activity) after 6 days training

Pournot, et al. [36]

11 male runners, average age 31.8

48-minute simulated trail run on treadmill (alternating gradients)

3 mins

-110 C

< 30 mins

4 treatments on consecutive days

+ve effect on cytokines (i.e. anti-inflammation)

Selfe, et al. [10]

14 male rugby players, average age 24.

Rugby fixture

1, 2 or 3 mins

-135 C

12-24 hrs

 

No effect on cytokines, +ve and -ve effect on tissue oxygenation.

Kruger, et al. [41]

11 male athletes, average age 25.9

5 5 minutes of high intensity running

3 mins

-110 C

45 mins

Single

+ve effect on tissue oxygenation, VO2.

Wozniak, et al. [15]

20 elite male kayakers, 10 untrained men

Kayak training, including strength and endurance training

3 mins

-120 C - 140 C

??

3 treatments a day for 10 consecutive days (trained). Single (untrained)

+ve effect on antioxidants (e.g. superoxide dismutase)

Ziemann, et al. [37]

18 males, average age 21.7

30-minute step ups

3 mins

-110 C

N/A (8:00 and 16:00 each day)

2 treatments a day for 5 consecutive days

+ve effect on inflammation, CK, DOMS, cholesterol (LDL/HDL ratio)

Schaal, et al. [50]

10 elite female swimmers, average age 20.4

2-week intense swimming training

3 mins

-110 C

N/A (between 18:00-19:00 each day)

14 treatments on consecutive days

+ve effect on salivary α-amylase, blood lactate, sleep duration and sleep efficiency.

Grasso, et al. [48]

25 male rugby players, average age 25.6

Rugby training

3 mins

-140 C

?? (morning and evening)

2 treatments a day for 7 consecutive days

+ve effect on cortisol and testosterone

Russell, et al. [33]

14 Premier League academy football players, average age 18

15 30 m sprints

2 mins

-135 C

20 mins

Single

+ve effect on testosterone. No effect on other variables.

Abaidia, et al. [60]

10 males, active, average age 23.4

Eccentric knee flexions - 5 sets of 15 repetitions

3 mins

-110 C

5 mins

Single

No +ve effect. **

Hohenauer, et al. [61]

10 males, average age 25.8

Drop jumps - 5 sets of 20 repetitions

2 mins (PBC*)

-135 C

<10 mins

Single

Small +ve effect on muscle torque and soreness **

Wilson, et al. [44]

10 male runners, average age 37.7

Marathon race

3 mins

-85 C

15 mins

Double (separated by 15 mins)

No +ve effect on muscle torque, but slight +ve effect on soreness.

Mawhinney, et al. [24]

10 males, average age 22.3

Steady state cycling until core temp 38 C reached (average 45 mins)

2 mins

-110 C

10 mins

Single

Reduction in muscle temperature, heart rate **

Krueger, et al. [53]

11 male athletes, average age 25.9

5 5 minutes of high intensity running

3 mins

-110 C

45 mins

Single

No +ve effect on inflammation, testosterone