Table 1: Methodology based on selected journal articles.


Tiara Nur Elfiana, et al. (2018)

Rajeev Bhat, et. al (2013)

Ruixin Shi & Bin Li (2016)

V. Volpe, et al. (2018)


Degradation Study of Biodegradable Plastic using Nata De Coco as a Filler.

Producing novel sago starch-based food packaging films by incorporating lignin isolated from oil palm black liquor waste.


Synthesis and Characterization of Cross-linked Starch/Lignin film.

Uses of sunflower seed fried oil as an eco-friendly plasticizer for starch and application of this thermoplastic starch as filler for PLA.


Samples in the form of plastic were placed in set holder and scanned at a wavelength of4000-400 cm -1

No usage of FTIR

Recorded on an Avatar 360 spectrophotometer at wavelength 4000-400 cm -1 with a resolution 4 cm -1 

No usage of FTIR

Tensile Test

Universal Testing Machine (UTM) ASTM method D.882-02

Using standard method (ASTM,1980) with 5 kg loads with distance between the grips set at 50 mm and cross head speed at 0.40 mm/s 

Films were cut 100 mm x 10 mm and determined with Tensile Tester Instron XLDT 1kN (China) with an extension speed of 5 mm/min

10 mm x 5 mm x 200 µm were subjected to Perkin Elmer DMA 8000 with maximum load to 2N and a load rate of 0.1 N/min

Water Vapor Permeability

Using the gravimetric method (ASTM 1983) where the plastic was placed in the mouth of cup with silica gel

Measured by using ASTM E96-95 method with slight modifications

No water vapor permeability testing

No water vapor permeability testing

Water Solubility Test

No water solubility test

Films were cut 2 x 3 cm and placed in a desiccator containing silica gel for 7 days

No water solubility test

No water solubility test

Biodegradation Test

Burying the sample 3 x 3 cm 2 in the soil for 12 days with every two days plastic was taken, washed and weighed

No degradation testing

No degradation testing

No degradation testing