Table 3: Medical contraindications and possible limiting factors for equestrian sports in children.

• History of cervical fracture or dislocation

• Congenital absence of odontoid process

• Temporary paralysis of any cause

• Head injury with permanent impairment

• Congenital narrowing of the spinal canal

• Patients with frequent, uncontrolled seizures

Possible limiting factors:
• Repeated concussion

• Brachial injury

• Lumbar injury

• Herniated intervertebral disk

• Recurrent injury to cervical or lumbar ligaments or muscles