Table 2: Gustillo I gunshot fractures.

Author/Journal Population/anatomical Segment Methods of fixation Results
Wiss [12]/J Bone Joint Surg Am 1991 Civilian/Femur fractures Delayed Interlocking Nailing 0% infection; 3.5% delayed union; 12.5% malunion
Bergmann [13]/J Trauma 1993 Civilian/Femur fractures Immediate Intramedullary Nailing 0% infection
Nowotarski [14]/J Orthop Trauma 1994 Civilian/Femur fractures Immediate Intramedullary Nailing 0% infection; 2.5% delayed union; 2.5% malunion; 0% nonunion.
Molinari [17]/Cont Orthop 1994 Civilian/Extremity long bone fractures Immediate (A), early (B) and late (C) internal fixation groups Infection 2.6% Nonunion 3.3% in each group
Tornetta [16]/J Orthop Trauma 1994 Civilian/Distal femur Anterograde Intramedullary Nailing 7.8% low valgus deformity; 15.8% low posterior angulation
Long [7]/Clin Orthop Rel Res 2003 Civilian/Injuries to the femur Immediate or early nailing No infection
Polat [15]/Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2018 Civilian/Femur Diaphyseal fractures Immediate debridement and delayed treatment: External fixation (group A) versus Intramedullary Nailing (group B) Deep infection 5.2% (A); 3.5%(B) Delayed union 10.5%(A); 7.1%(B) Nonunion 2.6%(A) 3.5%(B)
Gonzalez [18]/The Journal of Hand Surgery 1993s Civilian/Hand metacarpal fractures Early rigid fixation combined fixation with flexible intramedullary nails, k wires and plates. 0% deep infection; 4% superficial infection; 0% malrotation; mild decrease in range of motion.
Kiehn [19]/Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005 Civilian/hand fractures Reduction and immobilization; Early definitive fixation 8% infection with no difference between the methods.
Komurcu [20] Int Orthop 2008 Civilian/Hand fractures Immediate fixation for all plate fixation (A), K wire (B) and Ext Fixation (C), Plate + graft (D) Infection 14.2% (A); 30% (B); 28.5% (C); 10% (D) Nonunion 0% (A, B) 7% (C); 10% (D).