Table 1: Gustillo classification for open fractures.
|Gustillo and Anderson classification|
|Grade I||Clean skin opening of < 1 cm, usually from inside to outside; minimal muscle contusion; simple transverse or short oblique fractures|
|Grade II||Laceration > 1 cm long, with extensive soft tissue damage; minimal to moderate crushing component; simple transverse or short oblique fractures with minimal comminution.|
|Grade III||Extensive soft tissue damage, including muscles, skin and neurovascular structures: Often a high energy injury with severe crushing component.|
|Grade IIIA||Extensive soft tissue laceration, adequate bone coverage; segmental fractures, gunshot injuries, minimal periosteal stripping.|
|Grade IIIB||Extensive soft tissue injury with periosteal stripping and bone exposure requiring soft tissue flap closure; usually associated with massive contamination|
|Grade IIIC||Vascular injury requiring repair.|