Table 3: Key aspects of Agriculture, social safety net and WASH studies with SBCC component.

Study Study Size Methods/SBCC Approach Used Evaluation Methods Outcome Measured Results/Findings
Girard, et al. [10]; Kenya 505 women Social mobilization: Health clinics were linked with community-based maternal support groups to provide nutrition counseling and vouchers for Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) vine cuttings Social mobilization: Health clinics were linked with community-based maternal support groups to provide nutrition counseling and vouchers for Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) vine cuttings Nutrition knowledge, diets, and nutritional status of mothers Pregnant and lactating women (PLW) significantly higher vitamin A intake; IG women greater consumption of vitamin A rich fruit and vegetable; 45% decrease in low retinol-binding protein (RBP)
Bezner Kerr, et al. [7]; Malawi 3,838 children < 3 years Group based approach: Agricultural interventions involved intercropping legumes and visits from farmer researchers, while nutrition education involved home visits and group meetings A prospective quasi-experimental study Weight- and height-for-age Z-scores Significant increase in wt/age; positive results most pronounced in villages intensively involved in the intervention
Reinbott, et al. [8]; Cambodia 743 at baseline and 921 at impact Group based approach: Nutrition education (NE) program Cluster randomized trial Child's dietary diversity and height-for-age Z-scores Intake of all food groups increased in intervention group(IG); comparison group (CG) decreased intake protein, vitamin A and animal source foods (ASF) foods; improved diet diversity in IG but not HAZ
Marquis, et al. [9]; Ghana 179 women (IG) and 142 non-participants Group based approach: Microcredit loans and weekly sessions of nutrition and entrepreneurship education for women with children 2-5 y of age [intervention group (IG)] Quasi-experimental trial Weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) z scores 91% of household (HH) were food insecure, with CG HH higher food insecurity (lt 0.8); mean ASF score for preschoolers higher in IG vs. CG; modest increase in WAZ in IG; only 60% HH attended all 4 cycles of interventions
Osei, et al. [11]; Nepal 335 children Group based approach: Enhanced homestead food production program (EHFP), consisting of home gardens, poultry, and nutrition education Cluster randomized study Hemoglobin and anthropometry were measured at baseline and post- micronutrient powders (MNP) supplementation No impact on child growth; combined agri and MNP group marginally significant decrease in anemia among children
Social Safety Net
Nsabuwera, et al. [17]; Rwanda 600 households enrolled in the FSLP Advocacy: Health Food Security and Livelihoods Program (FSLP) A before-and-after intervention Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) scores and household Food Consumption Scores (FCS) HH food access improved most in the poorest HH; HH food consumption increased significantly in larger landholdings HH
Robertson, et al. [14]; Zimbabwe 1,199 for control, 1,525 to the UCT & 1,319 to the CCT group Group based approach: Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) and conditional cash transfers (CCTs) Cluster randomized controlled trial Vaccination uptake and school attendance UCT children had increased % of birth certificates, deletion; UCT and CCT had higher probability of attending school at least 80% of the time compared to control group
Siega-Riz, et al. [15]; Honduras Intervention, n = 160 and control, n = 140 Group based approach: LNS. All children received food vouchers and nutrition education Randomized controlled trial Improving the micronutrient status B12 and vitamin A deficiency decreased in IG group; folate increased significantly at 6 m and 12 m
Remans, et al. [12]; Sub-Saharan African countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, & Uganda N/A Group based approach: Integrated, multi-sector intervention combines nutrition-specific, health-based approaches with food system- and livelihood-based interventions A prospective observational trial Childhood stunting Household food security and diet diversity improved over a 3-year period; child stunting decreased by 43% from baseline
Lechtig, et al. [13]; Peru 75,000 children and 35,000 mothers Group based approach: Integrated intervention with education on nutrition and WASH through home visits and daily community meetings Experimental prospective study with baseline and end line surveys to measure impact evaluation Weight-and height-for-age & weight for height Z-scores, iron-deficiency anemia and vitamin A status Stunting, anemia and vitamin A deficiency decreased during the intervention period
Singh, et al. [16]; India 942 mother-child dyads Social mobilization and interpersonal: Implementing districts of a Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) nutrition and health program Quasi-experimental design Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices IG involving health care providers of anganwadi workers (AWWs) had increased contacts; socio-demographic factors were the main factors influencing BF
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)
Fenn, et al. [21]; Ethiopia 5,552 in 2014 & 3,758 in 2009 Group based approach: (i) Health; (ii) Nutrition education; (iii) Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); or (iv) Integrated comprising all interventions Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline (2004) and for impact evaluation (2009) Height (or length) -for-age Z-scores WASH IG only group to show significant increase in HAZ; IG significant improvement in mother’s knowledge of diarrhea and hygiene
Kariuki, et al. [22]; Kenya Total of 300 mothers Group based approach: Sanitation and hygiene promotion based on community participatory approaches Repeated cross-sectional study design Mothers’ and children’s health Significant increases in handwashing, presence of soap and refuse pit ownership with intervention; significant decrease in diarrhea in preschoolers
Bowen, et al. [20]; Pakistan 461 children Advocacy, Interpersonal & mass communication: Weekly hand washing promotion Cluster randomized controlled trial Child growth and development No difference in growth between IG or CG children; dev. Quotient sign higher in IG children at 5 to 7 y
Dangour, et al. [18]; 10 low- and middle-income countries N = 4,627 for weight-for-age and height-for age- z-score, n = 4,622 weight-for-height z-score Group based approach & mass communication:WASH interventions either singly or in combination Systematic review Child anthropometry No significant effects of WASH interventions on WAZ or WHZ; marginal effect of WASH on HAZ
Arnold, et al. [19]; Guatemala 600 households and 929 children Group based and interpersonal: A 3-year, combined household water treatment and hand washing campaign Cohort Child growth No difference between IG and CG in handwashing, hygienic conditions, child diarrhea, clinical LRI or growth
Luby, et al. [23];Bangla desh 5,551 pregnant women Group based approach: Nutrition and multimedia WASH education provided through home visits Cluster randomized controlled trial Length-for-age Z score of children born and caregiver-reported diarrhea among children < 3 years Treatment children in groups, except water, had significantly lower prevalence of diarrhea. After 1 y of program, children in the nutrition group significantly taller than controls