Table 1: Summary of themes associated to regional HIV prevalence.

Themes and sub-themes

Description

Region most prominent in

Location most prominent in

Financial impact

Having little or no income affects sexual behavior

Singida

Rural and urban

Poverty

Poverty drives women to trade sex for money for various reasons

Iringa

Rural and Urban in Singida; urban in Iringa

Idleness

Young menís inability to find a job awards them free time and energy, during which premarital sex and promiscuity is a common distraction

Singida (only)

Urban

Economic activity

Activities such as the transport of goods and construction affect sexual behavior

Iringa

Urban

Alcohol

Frequent alcohol consumption is in direct connection to unprotected sex and promiscuity

Singida

Rural and urban

Sex and youth

Men and women start having sex at a young age; you are considered an adult at 16-years-old

Singida

Rural and urban

Premarital sex

Even though it is prohibited, young man and women engage in premarital sex

Iringa

Rural and Urban

Liberal parenting

Liberal parenting, and lack of supervision over their children leads to sexual experimentation

Iringa

Rural

Media influence

Pop culture (on television) promote premarital sexual activity

Iringa

Rural

Multiple partners

Men (and to a lesser extent women) have multiple sexual partners and engage in unprotected sex

Singida

Rural and urban

Religious influence

Because of religious pressure or education, people are only taught abstinence

Iringa

Rural

Valuing children over marriage

Even unmarried women strive to have children, because otherwise they feel worthless

Iringa

Urban

Lack of education

Lack of sex education put people at risk

Singida

Rural and urban

Misconceptions

Superstitious beliefs (i.e. condoms cause cancer) affect behavior and sexual practices

Iringa

Rural and urban

Risky practices

Practices that may potentially put people at bigger risks from getting infected with HIV virus, such as prostitution and unsanitary health care

Iringa

Urban

Infrequent condom use

General attitude towards condom use is negative (e.g. condoms reduce pleasure, they are uncomfortable using condoms)

Singida

Rural and Urban

Silence

Absence of conversations about sex, as well as the stigma on condoms

Iringa

Rural and urban