Table 1: New ecological paradigm questions.

1. We are approaching the limit of the number of people the earth can support
2. Humans have the right to modify the natural environment to suit their needs*
3. When humans interfere with nature it often produces disastrous consequences
4. Human ingenuity will insure that we do NOT make the earth unlivable
5. Humans are severely abusing the environment*^
6. The earth has plenty of natural resources if we just learn how to develop them*
7. Plants and animals have as much right as humans to exist
8. The balance of nature is strong enough to cope with the impacts of modern industrial nations*
9. Despite our special abilities humans are still subject to the laws of nature
10. The so-called "ecological crisis" facing humankind has been greatly exaggerated*^
11. The earth is like a spaceship with very limited room and resources*^
12. Humans were meant to rule over the rest of nature
13. The balance of nature is very delicate and easily upset*^
14. Humans will eventually learn enough about how nature works to be able to control it
15. If things continue on their present course, we will soon experience a major ecological catastrophe

*Indicates a question that was used in the present study; ^Post-treatment questions.

Source: adapted from Dunlap, et al. [10].

Question wording: "Listed below are statements about the relationship between humans and the environment. For each one, please indicate whether you STRONGLY AGREE, MILDLY AGREE, ARE UNSURE, MILDLY DISAGREE OR STRONGLY DISAGREE with it".

Agreement with the eight odd-numbered items and disagreement with the seven even-numbered items indicate pro-NEP responses.