Table 3: The five forms of overexcitabilities (OE; based on Dabrowski & Piechowski, Piechowski, Daniels & Piechowski, Lind) [21,80,81,83].

Sensual OE

Psychomotor OE

Imaginational OE

Intellectual OE

Emotional OE

Heightened experience of sensual pleasure or displeasure including all senses

Heightened excitability of the neuromuscular systems. Intense physical activity and a need for action

Heightened play of the imagination, visualization, and association

To seek understanding and truth

Heightened, intense feelings

Experience in extreme

High energy level

Imagine many possibilities

Passion for learning and making sense of things

Emotions deeply processed and displayed very strongly

·      Experience of a magnificent sunset, music or artwork may move the whole being

·      May seek sensual experience or may feel overstimulated/uncomfortable with abundance of sensory input and withdrawal completely

·      Experience may include irritating clothing tag, classroom noise, or environment smell

·     Show intense drive

·     Find great joy from immense activity

·     Rapid speech or “surplus of energy”

·     Talk compulsively

·     Act impulsively

·     Misbehave

·     Display nervous habits

·     Tapping feet, biting nails

·     Potential for being misdiagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Lind, 2001)

·     Visual thinkers

·     Abstract minds

·     Enjoy creation

·     Out-of-box thinkers

·     Can create and live in their own worlds- in their heads

·     May be a coping mechanism for companionship or boredom

·     High in metacognition, thinking about thinking

·     Strong concerns for moral issues, fairness, and world problems

·     Love of theory

·     Big picture thinkers

·     Strategic mind-set

·     Exceptional processing abilities

·     Keenly observant

·     Tenacious problem solvers

·     Avid readers

·     Appear critical, impatient

·     Frustrated when others cannot follow their pace

·     Extraordinary awareness

·     Extreme compassion, empathy, sensitivity

·     Practice self reflection

·     Strong connection to self, feelings, inner development

·     Ability to deeply connect with people and environment

·     Physical manifestation may include stomach aches, flushed skin, and depression