Table 2:Lists current applications of NPs in biology and medicine.

NPs Applications Safety/Adverse effects References
Gold colloid Medical diagnostics

Drug/gene delivery


LD: Relatively safe

HD: Cytotoxicity, kidney and liver damage

Silver colloid Similar to Gold

Antimicrobial agents

Clothing odor resistance

LD: Oxidative stress

HD: Neurotoxicity and liver damage, antibacterial

TiO2 Antimicrobial paint, tooth paste and cosmetics Autistic disorders, epilepsy

Alzheimer's like plaques

Fe Environmental remediation Oxidative stress, inflammation liver toxicity [189,190]
Fe2O3 Magnetic nanoparticle - contrast agents for tumor imaging Oxidative stress, membrane leakage of LDH, DNA damage, inflammation [37,191]
CNTs Diagnostics

Consumer electronics

Sports equipment

Mitochondrial toxicity, cell

cycle arrest, liver and lungs damage, frustrated phagocytosis

Fullerenes Drug delivery Oxidative stress, inflammation

Liver damage

Linear polymers Drug delivery LD: Relatively safe

HD: CNS and liver damage

Dendrimers Drug delivery Relatively safe. Some dendrimers may mimic body proteins and enzymes [200-202]