Table 2: Anti-addiction effects of herbal preparations.

Herb

Mechanisms

Effects

References

St Johnís Wort
Hypericin

Quercetin, rutin

Decreased 5-HT and GABA reuptake

Decreased DA degradation

Synergist to OPR, DA receptor agonist

Decrease in alcohol intake and craving

De Vry, et al. Panocka, et al. Perfumi, et al. Rezvani, et al. [178-182].

Kudzu root

Puerarin, diadzein

Decreased 5-HT and DA degradation
BZD-GABAA synergist
5-HT2c and GABAA agonist

Decrease in alcohol intake, craving and withdrawal symptom
Increase in alcohol
degradation

Anxiolytic

Benlhabib, et al. Overstreet, et al. Keung, et al. Heyman, et al. [44-46,183,184].

Tabernanthe iboga
Ibogaine (toxic)
18-methoxycoro Naridine (non toxic)

Decreased DAergic, DA levels,
k-OPR signaling, DA release
NMDA mediated GABA release

Decrease in craving and alcohol drinking

Rezvani, et al. Sweetnam, et al. Sershen, et al. Leal and de Gusmao [185-189].

Ginseng
Ginsenosides

Not understood

Decrease in alcohol toxicity

Harun, et al. [190].

Kava (Piper methysticum forst)

Decrease in NE and DA reuptake, and Glu release

Decrease in stress and brain DA levels

Steiner, Cairney, et al. Baum, et al. [191-193].

Voacanga africana

Increase in GABAergic activity

Decrease in craving and withdrawal symptoms

Kombian, et al. [194].

Ashwagandha
withania A

Decrease in GABA binding to GABAA receptor and Ca2+ channels.

Decrease in craving

Kulkarni and Ninan 1997 Andrade, et al. Sudhir, et al. [195-197].

Salvia miltiorrhiza
Tanshinones I, II
Miltrone

BZD-GABAA synergist
Increase in DA release

Decrease in alcohol intake

Colombo, et al. Imanshahidi and Hosseinzadeh [198,199].