Table 1: The journey from responsible alcohol drinking to alcoholism - stahes and possible mechanisms [22,195,196].
|Stages of alcohol addiction||Possible mechanisms discussed in the review|
|1. Acute phase
Rising BAC, dopamine, opioid, GABA and serotonin receptors
Falling BAC, glutamate, NMDA and GABA receptors, and receptor/voltage gated Na+ channels.
|2. Hangover/Tolerance craving||Alcohol metabolism, acetaldehyde accumulation, excitatory
neurotransmitters, inflammatory signaling, serotonin receptors
|3. Alcohol addiction||Adenosine, dopamine, serotonin, GABA and glutamate receptors.|
|4. Withdrawal symptoms||NMDA/Glutamate receptors, GABA, hyper-excitation, seizures.|